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Published articles: Ethics and The 3Rs


Animal Procedures Committee. (2003). Review of cost-benefit assessment in the use of animals in research. London, UK: Home Office.Link


Buchanan-Smith, H. M., Rennie, A., Vitale, A., Pollo, S., Prescott, M. & Morton, D. (2005). Harmonising the definition of refinement. Animal Welfare, 14 (4), 379-384.Link


Graham, M.L. and Prescott, M.J. (2015) The multifactorial role of the 3Rs in shifting the harm-benefit analysis in animal models of disease, European Journal of Pharmacology.Link


Ipsos MORI. (2012). Views on the use of animals in scientific research. London: Department  for  Business,  Innovation  and  Skill.Link


Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (2005). The ethics of research involving animals. London, UK:  Nuffield  Council  on Bioethics.Link


Prescott, M. (2010). Ethics of primate use. Advances in Science and Research, 5 (1), 11-22.Link


Richmond, J. (2010). The Three Rs. In R. Hubrecht & J. Kirkwell (Eds.), The UFAW Handbook on the Care and Management of Laboratory and Other Research Animals:  Eighth Edition  (p. 3-22).Link


Russell, W. & Burch, R.  (1959).  The principles of humane experimental technique. Wheathampstead, UK:  Universities  Federation for Animal  Welfare. Link


Stephens, M. L.  (2011).  Pursuing Medawar’s challenge for full replacement.  Alternatives  to Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Montreal 2011, 23.Link


Wallace, J., Sanford, J.,  Smith,  M. & Spencer,  K.  (1990).  The assessment and control of the severity of scientific procedures on laboratory animals: Report of the Laboratory Animal Science Association working party (Assessment and control of severity). Laboratory Animals, 24 (2), 97-130.Link